Thursday, April 28, 2016

Definition/Wordplay Etymology Crossover

Definition Wordplay Etymology CrossoverTake a close look at this clue:

Away from home, in the open, dies in battle (7) OUTSIDE
OUT (in the open) (DIES)*; Definition: away from home

The etymology of OUTSIDE is OUT + SIDE, so the clue partly recycles the definition of OUTSIDE in its wordplay OUT (DIES)*.

Try another:

What's used as a religious setting on a piece of furniture (7) RETABLE
RE (on) TABLE (piece of furniture); definition: what's used as a religious setting

The word RETABLE originates from medieval Latin retrotabulum which stands for 'rear table'. In this clue's wordplay, RETABLE splits along its natural etymological join (RE+TABLE), with TABLE retaining its furniture meaning.

Both of those clues show signs of definition/wordplay etymology crossover.

Understanding "definition/wordplay etymology crossover"

When the wordplay of a cryptic clue is etymologically related to its answer, it is a case of definition/wordplay etymology crossover.

You have a definition/wordplay etymology crossover on hand if:

  • The answer is SPACESHIP, the wordplay is SPACE + SHIP
  • The answer is LULLABY, the wordplay is LULL + [b]ABY
  • The answer is MECHANIC, the wordplay is (MACHINE)* + C
  • The answer is ENCLOSES, the wordplay is mEN CLOSE Something [T]

Is this wrong?

In double definition clues, it is widely accepted as good clueing practice to avoid etymology crossover between the two definitions. The same isn't universally followed with other clue types.

In his CU interview, David Stickley mentioned the "no definition/wordplay etymology crossover" rule as applicable to US cryptics, while being acceptable as a setter's tool in UK and Australia. I notice though that some setters of UK cryptics too avoid this device.

In his blog, Australian setter David Astle calls out such clues as "hookworms" in round-ups of weakly constructed clues.

Definition/wordplay etyomology crossover often results in wordplay that is not very cryptic. Crafting a smooth surface exacts less imagination from the setter when the wordplay echoes the definition.

What do you think?

Fine or flawed – what's your take?

Solve These

Three words, two clues for each word: one with definition/wordplay etymology crossover, the other without. Enjoy solving and spotting which one.

Rampant war arising always without peacekeepers (7)
One's taken flight to travel across the Channel (7)

Gangster abandoning accepted rule (4)
Turned on by jolly type (4)

Lost hour of sleep's restored (8)
To expect little is being negative (8)

[Thanks to setter Aakash Sridhar (Axe/Exa) for contributing all the clues for this post.]

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Monday, April 25, 2016

&Lit Clues That Do Not Deceive

andLit Clues That Do Not DeceiveOne of the hallmarks of a strong cryptic clue is a misleading definition. Some definitions are so creatively done that they stick long after one has solved the puzzle.

Guardian 26720 (Arachne): Part of autumn operation employs army swimmers (9) OCTOPUSES
OCT (part of autumn) OP (operation) USES (employs); definition: army swimmers

An important component that helps with disguising the definition is the alternate route to the answer. In the OCTOPUSES clue, "...autumn operation employs..." primes the solver to think of "army" of the military kind, steering the mind away from the "arm-y" interpretation.

Camouflage of this sort can be very challenging to execute in an &lit / semi-&lit clue. No alternate route exists in this clue type to contribute to surface misdirection. Additional constraints are at play: besides being accurate, the definition must also coincide with the wordplay without coming across as forced.

As a result, often, the &lit definition ends up being so direct it can be solved as a straight clue.

Independent 9103 (Klingsor): This country abuts Russia's borders in east (7) UKRAINE   
UK (this country) R[ussi]A IN E

THC 11583 (Vulcan): That which manages dirty clothes at home (7,7) WASHING MACHINE
(WHICH MANAGES)* around IN (at home); semi-&lit

The clues above are solvable from the surface meaning alone. As self-contained definitions, they are absolutely brilliant. But as cryptic clues, they do not venture to deceive.

Solvers: Do you notice a lack of misdirection in &lit clues?
Setters: When you write an &lit clue, do you keep an eye on the obviousness of the definition?

If, for the sake of a good &lit, the setter has to sacrifice one element out of accuracy / surface sense / deception – I guess it is wisest to let go of deception!

I leave you with a couple of &lit-type clues that work beautifully without giving away the answer:

FT 14737 (Alberich): A tall tree tumbles, trapping one? That will do (10) ALLITERATE
(A TALL TREE)* around I; D-by-E semi-&lit

Sunday Times 4650 (Dean Mayer): One trusted to get "creative" with books? (3,7) ART STUDENT
A (one) (TRUSTED)* NT (books)

Solve These

Enjoy solving these lovely &lit clues notwithstanding the straightish definitions.

Indy 8031 (Dac): In this, one may be flung out of car hitting tree (5)
FT14828 (Alberich): Lad regularly plunging into water, after small round object? (5,5)
Clue by Rufus: Make hale? (4)

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Tuesday, March 29, 2016

Prize Puzzle: Hindi Crossword 5 – Solution and Winner

Your submissions for Hindi Cryptic Crossword 5 have been seen and evaluated. Now to share the solution and announce the winner.

The Solution

Hindi Cryptic Crossword 5 - Solution Grid

The explanation of the answers:

आर-पार

क्रमांक संकेत उत्तर टिप्पणी
1 जब दिन ढले, तब संत ध्यान लगाकर करते हैं तन का परित्याग (2) संध्या संत + ध्यान - तन; Definition: जब दिन ढले, तब
2 कन्हैया थोड़ा सिर खाता है, पर परोपकारी है (4) मोहसिन सि in मोहन (कन्हैया - both names of Krishna); Definition: परोपकारी
4 हर माह के शुरुआत में मूर्ती मिलेगी (3) प्रतिमा प्रति (हर) + मा; Definition: मूर्ती
6 जल की धारा में 18 नीचे बह गये (2) नदी दीन 18 नीचे) jumbled; Definition: जल की धारा
7 पत्थर के टुकड़ों से बनता है रास्ता (2) पथ पथ is made from parts of पत्थर; Definition: रास्ता
8 ढंग से तब बना अमरीका अमन चाहने वाला (3)  तरीका त (तब - ब) रीका (अमरीका 'अम' न चाहने वाला i.e. अमरीका - अम); Definition: ढंग
9 रमता फिरता और जान देता (3) मरता रमता*; Definition: जान देता
11 हम एक नए ढंग से सूंघेंगे, तो शायद ये पाएंगे? (3) महक (हम एक-ए)*; सूंघेंगे, तो शायद ये पाएंगे
13 दीवाना हुआ बादल, फिर गया (3) बदला (बादल)*, दीवाना हुआ = anagrind; Definition: फिर गया
15 जटायु के उलझे हुए बाल (2) जटा Hidden in जटायु; Definition: बाल
16 तुर्की में कोई स्वर नहीं, यह क्या बहस है (2) तर्क Picking the non-vowel parts of तुर्की; Definition: बहस
17 पर्दानशीं-अंदाज़ में पेश हो चंदा (2)  दान Hidden in पर्दानशीं-अंदाज़; Definition: चंदा
18 दीपक हृदय-प्रत्यारोपण के बाद हानिकारक जंतु बन गया (3) दीमक दीपक with a change of the central letter; Definition: हानिकारक जंतु
20 सेवक, वापस आ!  बिन आभूषण के (2) सादा दास (सेवक) reversed, आ; Definition: बिन आभूषण के
21 परिचय का सवाल है (2) कौन  CD
22 'सेर' की लिखाई ठीक करो! होना चाहिए 'शेर' (3) केसरी (सेर की)*; Definition: शेर
24 ज़ख्म मिला वाघा में वापस जाके (2) घाव Hidden in (वाघा)<; Definition:  ज़ख्म
25 खो-खो के सन्दर्भ में घिसा-पिटा लेख (2) खेल लेख*; Definition: खो-खो (DBE)
26 रजनी और रति, बिना टोपी के? (2) रात रति without the top matra; Definition: रजनी
27 हर वन में नर पूजा (3) हवन
हर वन - र; Definition: पूजा
29 इस अंक को आईने में देखो -  दुगना दिखेगा! (3) तेंतीस ३३ when seen in mirror becomes ६६, i.e. twice. Also, the enu number in the clue i.e. 3 is duplicated
31 सीधा 36  गोद लेकर पैदा करता है बदनामी का कारण? (3) कलंक कल (सीधा 36 i.e. answer to 36A), having taken अंक (गोद); Definition: बदनामी का कारण?
33 ये कहो, तो चुप हो जाओगे (2,1) कुछ ना CD
35 थोड़ा जलवा क्या देख लिया, तो जुमला मिल गया (2) वाक्य Hidden in जलवा क्या; Definition: जुमला
36 तकलीफ का वक़्त जो आगे आने वाला है (2) कल Hidden in तकलीफ; Definition: वक़्त जो आगे आने वाला है
37 आ री, ज़रा खाले! इसके बाद और कुछ नहीं (3) आखरी अ(ख)री; Definition: आ री around खा
38 नानी, थोड़ा बादाम ले लो, ये होगा तभी केक बनेगा! (4)
नानबाई नान+(बा)+ई; Definition: ये होगा तभी केक बनेगा
39 3 फुट का हाथी जिसपर छोटा सा तिल (2) गज़ हाथी=गज with a dot= गज़; Definition: 3 फुट

नीचे की ओर

1 संगमरमर के ताजमहल के सामने वाले हिस्सों में मिलने वाले इशारे (3) संकेत Acrostic संगमरमर के ताजमहल; Definition: इशारे
2 कभी था वो क्रिकेट बादशाह, पर अफ़रीदी मोगॅंबो के साथ मिलके उसे उल्टा बंदी बनाता है (2) मोदी Hidden in (अफ़रीदी मोगॅंबो)<; Definition: कभी था वो क्रिकेट बादशाह
3 नटखट रसिया, जंगली जानवर! (3)  सियार रसिया*; Definition: जंगली जानवर
4 पहला-पहला प्रेम? रुक जा! (3) प्रथम प्र+थम; Definition: पहला
5  'लाल पत्थर' में प्राण का मध्यांतर के बाद भाग था, 'माइक' के वेश में (3) माणिक ण in माइक; Definition: लाल पत्थर
6 अफ़ग़ानिस्तान (काबुल) में पहनने की चीज़ (3) नकाब Hidden in अफ़ग़ानिस्तान (काबुल); semi-&lit
9 अंत में आमला लगाया (2) मला Towards the end of आमला; Definition: लगाया
10 सरताज, नागपुर में चाबुक मिलेगा (3) ताजन  Hidden in सरताज नागपुर; Definition: चाबुक
12 चिकित्सक कम ही भटकते हैं (3) हकीम (कम ही)*; Definition: कम ही
14 क्रूर मनुष्य से दर की निंदा (केंद्रीय नहीं)  (3) दरिंदा Dropping central part of दरकीनिंदा; Definition: क्रूर मनुष्य
16 सुबह-सुबह के बघार? (3) तड़के Double definition
17 दार्जिलिंग की सीमा के पास नया राक्षस है (3) दानव दा + नव (नया); Definition: राक्षस
18 अंत में, जादुई चिराग जिसे मिला वो ग़रीब हो गया! (2) दीन  Last part of अलादीन (जादुई चिराग जिसे मिला); Definition: ग़रीब
19
नीरज ज़रा कम लम्बा है (3)
कमल Hidden in कम लम्बा; Definition: नीरज (synonym of 'lotus')
20 सरकारी सामान की वापसी - थोड़ी सी या पूरी ? (2) सारी Hidden in (सरकारी सामान)<; Definition: पूरी
21 सौ भाई और दो तिहाई कवच से संरक्षित (3) कौरव और in कव; Definition: सौ भाई
23 सती माछ का टुकड़ा निगलकर डूब जाती है (3) समाती (सीता माँ  - आँ)*; Definition: डूब जाती
24 घाना, तंज़ानिया और केन्या के प्रमुख शायद खतरनाक हैं (3) घातक Acrostic घाना, तंज़ानिया केन्या; Definition: खतरनाक
27 उल्टा-सीधा बोल, ऐसा अधिकार है (2) हक (कह)<; Definition: अधिकार
28 महाभारत का पात्र जिसका कोई वंश नहीं? (3) नकुल "न कुल" (जिसका कोई वंश नहीं); Definition: महाभारत का पात्र
29 इस जानवर का सर काट दो, तो मिलेगा आशीर्वाद (3)
तेंदुआ तेंदुआ without its तें is दुआ (आशीर्वाद); Definition: [इस] जानवर
30 रिक्शे में बैठनेवाली रीवा से वापस आई (3) सवारी Hidden in (रीवा से)<; Definition: रिक्शे में बैठनेवाली
32 ये जगह कुछ बुलंद नहीं है (3) लंदन Telescopic
34 गर्व में चूर रावण थोड़ा क्रोधित हुआ (3) नाराज़ नाज़ (गर्व) around रा; Definition: क्रोधित
36 ढेर सारे भुट्टे बिना ऊपरी छिलके के (2) कई मकई (भुट्टे) - म; Definition: ढेर सारे

The Theme

The theme, as most of you rightly guessed, was the names of the four people who had all-correct entries for Hindi Cryptic Crossword 4: Sanket (1d), Pratima Manik (4a,5d), Sandhya (1a) and Mohsin (2a).

The other theme? More on that in a while...

Finding Our Worthy Winner

Judging this contest has been something of a first, in that we did not have to rely on a lucky draw. The top slot for Hindi Crossord 5 has a clear occupant.

Several entries got the grid fill almost right except for a little misstep at 35a. The expected answer is वाक्य, not वाक्या. When the first few submissions in succession made the same error, we went back to the dictionary to check if the clue's definition जुमला could be interpreted in another way and if वाक्या was an acceptable alternate answer. The dictionary says not: जुमला simply means "a complete sentence in grammar", while वाक़या (note the different spelling: a full क with a dot below, or तिल as 39a would have it) is "incident, occurrence, news, event".

Perhaps many of you tripped up over this as जुमला prompts associations with words of Urdu origin? Let us know!

After taking your answers/annotations into account, we had the following solvers with all-correct or almost all-correct entries:

Pratima Manik
Vidyadhar Gadgil
Raju Umamaheshwar
Vinayak Rao Ekbote
Vasant Srinivasan

Of these, only one solver had all the answers right. Over to Kishore to tell you who it was.

--------------
शहर : लंदन
जगह : नानबाई पथ
वक्त : संध्या

रसोईघर से तड़के की महक आ रही थी |
मेरे साथ मेरा दोस्त हकीम (क्या बेटा!) आखरी सवाल के जवाब की गुज़ारिश कर रहा था - उत्सुकता दीमक की तरह उसके दिमाग को खा रहा थी |
घर का नंबर बाईस था पर पहेली में तेंतीस क्यों? और तेंतीस कह रहा था कुछ न कहो...
नाराज़ मत होइए ... आप मेरे तरीके से वाकिफ़ है ... आपके लिए सिर्फ संकेत ही काफ़ी है ...

इस खेल में कई लोगों ने भाग लिया ...
कौन जीता?

जीतने वाले का नाम 'व' से शुरू होता है ...

वसंत और विद्याधर दोनों ने जम के जवाब दिया बेशक,
पर वाक्य को वाक़या बनाने का उन्हें नहीं है हक़;
वास्तव में इस विशेष वर्ग पहेली के विजेता है विनायक

वाह, वाह ! बधाई हो !
--------------

Vinayak – superlative show! Please write to me to claim your prize.

We hope all of you who tried this crossword enjoyed what you solved of it, even if you didn't fill in every cell in the grid. Feedback most welcome!

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Saturday, March 19, 2016

Prize Puzzle: Hindi Crossword 5

It's Holi time, it's Hindi varg-paheli time. Take a stab - there is a prize to be won!

Kishore and I present to you our fifth Hindi cryptic crossword. After clueing in couplet form for the last Hindi puzzle, we go back to the classic concise clueing style. You might spot a theme or two in the grid. If you do, tell us.

Enjoy solving. Wish you good luck - and very Happy Holi.

Hindi Cryptic Crossword 5

आर-पार

1 जब दिन ढले, तब संत ध्यान लगाकर करते हैं तन का परित्याग (2)
2 कन्हैया थोड़ा सिर खाता है, पर परोपकारी है (4)
4 हर माह के शुरुआत में मूर्ती मिलेगी (3)
6 जल की धारा में 18 नीचे बह गये (2)
7 पत्थर के टुकड़ों से बनता है रास्ता (2)
8 ढंग से तब बना अमरीका अमन चाहने वाला (3)
9 रमता फिरता और जान देता (3)
11 हम एक नए ढंग से सूंघेंगे, तो शायद ये पाएंगे? (3)
13 दीवाना हुआ बादल, फिर गया (3)
15 जटायु के उलझे हुए बाल (2)
16 तुर्की में कोई स्वर नहीं, यह क्या बहस है (2)
17 पर्दानशीं-अंदाज़ में पेश हो चंदा (2)
18 दीपक हृदय-प्रत्यारोपण के बाद हानिकारक जंतु बन गया (3)
20 सेवक, वापस आ! बिन आभूषण के (2)
21 परिचय का सवाल है (2)
22 'सेर' की लिखाई ठीक करो! होना चाहिए 'शेर' (3)
24 ज़ख्म मिला वाघा में वापस जाके (2)
25 खो-खो के सन्दर्भ में घिसा-पिटा लेख (2)
26 रजनी और रति, बिना टोपी के? (2)
27 हर वन में नर पूजा (3)
29 इस अंक को आईने में देखो - दुगना दिखेगा! (3)
31 सीधा 36 गोद लेकर पैदा करता है बदनामी का कारण? (3)
33 ये कहो, तो चुप हो जाओगे (2,1)
35 थोड़ा जलवा क्या देख लिया, तो जुमला मिल गया (2)
36 तकलीफ का वक़्त जो आगे आने वाला है (2)
37 आ री, ज़रा खाले! इसके बाद और कुछ नहीं (3)
38 नानी, थोड़ा बादाम ले लो, ये होगा तभी केक बनेगा! (4)
39 3 फुट का हाथी जिसपर छोटा सा तिल (2)

नीचे की ओर

1 संगमरमर के ताजमहल के सामने वाले हिस्सों में मिलने वाले इशारे (3)
2 कभी था वो क्रिकेट बादशाह, पर अफ़रीदी मोगॅंबो के साथ मिलके उसे उल्टा बंदी बनाता है (2)
3 नटखट रसिया, जंगली जानवर! (3)
4 पहला-पहला प्रेम? रुक जा! (3)
5 'लाल पत्थर' में प्राण का मध्यांतर के बाद भाग था, 'माइक' के वेश में (3)
6 अफ़ग़ानिस्तान (काबुल) में पहनने की चीज़ (3)
9 अंत में आमला लगाया (2)
10 सरताज, नागपुर में चाबुक मिलेगा (3)
12 चिकित्सक कम ही भटकते हैं (3)
14 क्रूर मनुष्य से दर की निंदा (केंद्रीय नहीं) (3)
16 सुबह-सुबह के बघार? (3)
17 दार्जिलिंग की सीमा के पास नया राक्षस है (3)
18 अंत में, जादुई चिराग जिसे मिला वो ग़रीब हो गया! (2)
19 नीरज ज़रा कम लम्बा है (3)
20 सरकारी सामान की वापसी - थोड़ी सी या पूरी ? (2)
21 सौ भाई और दो तिहाई कवच से संरक्षित (3)
23 सती माछ का टुकड़ा निगलकर डूब जाती है (3)
24 घाना, तंज़ानिया और केन्या के प्रमुख शायद खतरनाक हैं (3)
27 उल्टा-सीधा बोल, ऐसा अधिकार है (2)
28 महाभारत का पात्र जिसका कोई वंश नहीं? (3) 
29 इस जानवर का सर काट दो, तो मिलेगा आशीर्वाद (3)
30 रिक्शे में बैठनेवाली रीवा से वापस आई (3)
32 ये जगह कुछ बुलंद नहीं है (3)
34 गर्व में चूर रावण थोड़ा क्रोधित हुआ (3)
36 ढेर सारे भुट्टे बिना ऊपरी छिलके के (2)

PDF format available here.

Notes On The Crossword

  1. Word lengths are in syllables e.g. each of the words पहला, प्रथम, प्रदान, प्रस्थान will be enumerated as (3).
  2. Complex consonants go into a single cell e.g. वर्ग will be split into two cells, the first with व, the second with र्ग. Similarly, प्रस्थान will be split into three cells, the first with प्र, the second with स्था, the third with न.
  3. In wordplay, the matras may be treated independently of the letters e.g. राम when anagrammed can give मार or मरा.

Solving Instructions

  1. Send in your completed entries to shuchi [at] crosswordunclued [dot] com, with the subject line "Hindi Cryptic Crossword 5 – Solution", latest by Saturday 26th March 2016.
  2. Entries may be sent in this solution template – replace "Your Name" in the file name with your name. If not using the template, the solution should be legible and readable in a standard text or image reader. PNG, Excel, Word formats are all OK.
  3. Solution words should be in Devanagari script. [A tool like Quillpad can be used for typing in Hindi.]
  4. Entries should contain annotations for the answers. Any annotation format is all right – words or symbols, Hindi or English – as long as how you arrived at the answer is clear.

If you have any questions related to solution submission, please post them in the comments section.

The Prize

The winner can choose gift vouchers on Flipkart or Amazon IN/US/UK, worth INR 1000 (or equivalent in USD/GBP).

The solver with the maximum correct answers, correctly annotated, will win. In case of ties, the winner will be picked by a lucky draw.

The solution to the crossword and the winner's name will be announced in a follow-up post after 26th March 2016.

Get solving now – all the best!

Update (29-Mar-2016): Hindi Crossword 5: Solution and Winner

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Wednesday, March 9, 2016

Coincidence or Plagiarism: How do we tell?

Plagiarism or Coincidence in Crossword PuzzlesThe crossword world has been abuzz with this FiveThirtyEight report for the past few days. The investigation and its aftermath have spawned several threads of conversations about plagiarism in puzzles.

In this case, the data is so overwhelming that it leaves no doubt - but often the difference between plagiarism and coincidence is not so marked. A few clues with shades of similarity, a brilliant clue that was done before, an identical theme, even a full puzzle almost like another – any of it can happen by sheer chance.

In 2015, two consecutive Guardian prize puzzles by different setters carried the same theme of US Presidents – the grid fills naturally shared common entries, and what was arguably the cleverest clue in both employed the same wordplay device.

In 2009, two American crossword setters produced crosswords with a theme that, on the face of it, doesn't look like it could get repeated: phrases with the word RAVEN embedded inside. Both puzzles had near-identical theme entries in the exact same places in the grid. Matt Gaffney, the setter of one of those puzzles, wrote about how such a thing could happen independently and coincidentally.

Earlier when I spotted similar clues across crosswords, I used to blog about it (Déjà Vu, The Times Squires). I discontinued doing so as finding such commonality turned out to be too frequent to be post-worthy. Talented wordsmiths can surely see without external prompting that a TARANTULA is "natural at spinning" or a RHINO is a "one-horn animal" – it surprises me no more to find these words clued by different setters in the same style.

Arden Anax Clue Similarity

Some words (extra risotto, anyone?) are grid-friendly and will show up often in crosswords. Some words can be treated for clueing in only so many ways. Sometimes the ways of word breakup are many but two setters pick the same idea since it produces a great surface.

In clue-writing contests such as CCCWC, which do not make the entries public till after the deadline, participants cannot possibly copy/get inspiration from other participants' clues. And yet, declare the clue word CLEMENTINE and three entrants turn in "Papal cross? (10)".

So how do we identify a case of wilful copying?

If a setter does actually lift/tweak another setter's work, it is hard to tell when the instances of resemblance are few and the clues in question aren't markedly different from the setter's usual style. Only the setter knows!

I believe that we should be careful in using the P-word unless the evidence is very strong, such as:

  • Repetitions over a large volume of puzzles
  • Wide variation in quality of puzzles/clues by the setter
  • A pattern of resemblance to others' work especially in the long grid fills, where the potential for copying is the highest

The recent case reveals another tell-tale sign: expressing a disregard for the puzzle that your own work closely resembles. Not a fan, never have been a fan? If these repetitions were by chance, the setter/editor would like the crosswords that happen to be uncannily similar to his own!

Sometimes even a single clue can raise suspicions of copying. Say an amateur setter whose clues are generally unremarkable writes a brilliant clue on social media. There will be those who notice this anomaly and search for the clue online. If they find that this clue resembles a winner on another CWC, they will suspect. If this happens over and over, they will be sure. There may not be charges of theft made openly, but people watch, people know!

With publicly available puzzle databases and advanced search tools online, plagiarising puzzles/clues is easy. What is also easy is getting caught. The same puzzle databases and advanced search tools are available to consumers of puzzles. Puzzle solvers are smart and curious and driven to unraveling mysteries. Plagiarism in puzzles, if attempted, is bound to come out sooner or later.

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